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Jean-François Lyotard Translated by Georges Van den Abbeele. The Differend. “ This work is of vital importance in a period when revisionism of all stripes. Expressing the Inexpressible: Lyotard and the Differend Jacob M. Held Marquette University Department of Philosophy Coughlin Hall P.O. Box Jean-François Lyotard in Continental Philosophy. (categorize this paper) Shifting the Ground of the Moral Domain in Lyotard’s Le Ophir –

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Lyotard’s main criticism of representation in the libidinal philosophy is that it is nihilistic. A lot of searching must be done to find new rules for forming and linking phrases tha t are able to express the differend disclosed by a feeling, unless one wants thi s differend to be smothered right away in a litigation and for the alarm sounded by the feeling to have been useless.

Algeria In the fifteen years between his first two books of philosophy, Lyotard devoted all his writing efforts to the cause of revolutionary politics.

Ross Abbinnett differennd unknown. In this context, modern and postmodern art can be distinguished in the following way. Paganism rejects any universal criteria for judgement, yet Lyotard claims that we must judge, that justice demands this of us.

Chris Rojek vifferend, Bryan S. Lyotard’s main reason for rejecting pagani sm is that he himself recognizes that in order to adjudicate between competing c laims one requires a way to determine which statement is more justified than the others. It is a differend and not litigation because it is by definition inexpressible. If the differend is inexpressible by definition, then whatever subsequently is expressed by a newly created idiom ca nnot be the original state of affairs or fact of the matter.

A meaningful phrase in one genre is not a meaningful phrase in ano ther. It was during the industrial revolution, Lyotard suggests, that knowledge entered into the economic equation and became a force for production, but it is in postmodernity that knowledge is becoming the central force for production.

Jean-François Lyotard: “The Différend,” Part Three | Art History Unstuffed

In a schism erupted diffeend Socialisme ou Barbarie over Castoriadis’ new theoretical direction for the group. Many tribal groups claim that land which they traditionally inhabited is now owned and controlled by the descendants of European colonists.

The later is the wronged party in a litigation; the former, the wronged party in a differend. It is Lyotard’s view that certain technical and technological advancements lyotardd taken place since the Second World War his historical pin-pointing of the beginning of postmodernity which have had and are still having a radical effect on the status of knowledge in the world’s most advanced countries.


The theorist is like a spectator who views the representation of the world outside the theatre on the stage inside the theatre. As the heterogeneous collides with its limit it exceeds itself. Lyotard asserts that a justice of multiplicities requires a multiplicity of justices. Lyotard deals with these common themes in a highly original way, and his work exceeds many popular conceptions of postmodernism in its depth, imagination, and rigor.

Lyotard, along with Souyris, became a member of the splinter group Pouvoir Ouvrier Worker’s Powerbut resigned in In the earlier phase of his work, art is celebrated for its figural and libidinal aspects that oppose and deregulate systems of discourse and rational thought. Some forms of art can reinforce structured systems of meaning, but the special feature of avant-garde art is to disrupt expectations, conventions, and established orders of reception.

In a litigation, the plaintiff’s wrong can be presented. Lyohard will allow computerization to contribute to knowledge functioning by paralogy rather than by performativity, and to the free functioning of society as a set of heterogenous elements rather lyotwrd an efficient system, removing the threat of terror.

Only phrases carry sense i. Whereas in the libidinal philosophy the focus was to see that a single interpretation of an event did not become hegemonic, in Lyotard’s later philosophy he is primarily concerned with the problems of justice that arise between competing interpretations of events.

Jean-François Lyotard, The Differend – PhilPapers

The end result of Lyotard’s work on Algeria and the disappointment at the failure of socialist revolution to take place led him to an abandonment of revolutionary socialism and traditional Marxism on the grounds that social reality is too complex to describe accurately with any master-discourse. Ultimately, the point is not to privilege the figural over the discursive, but to show how these elements must negotiate with each other.

For Lyotard language is composed of a multiplicity of phrase regimes which cannot be translated into each other. The situation is a double bind because there are two alternatives – either there were gas chambers or there were not – which lead to the same conclusion: Remember me on this computer.

However, according to Lyotard there does not exist one overriding discourse that can dkfferend the objective t ruth, thd ultimate meaning, of any one phrase. Lyotard gives us lyoatrd few examples hhe types of utterances. Because however the individual, in the world whose law is the universal individual advantage, has nothing else except this self, which has become historically indifferent, the carrying out of the tried-and-true tendency is at the same time what is most horrifying; nothing leads beyond this any more than beyond the electrified barbed wire fences around the camps.


In this sense, paganism can be thought of as a plurality of rules of judgement godsas opposed to belief in just one rule or diffsrend of rules God. Regarding the victim, Lyotard wants to find a palatable solution to their situation. Lyotard rejects both of these alternatives on the grounds that the choice seems difficult or arbitrary, and also rejects a third alternative – that we might distinguish two kinds of equally legitimate knowledge, one based on the view of society as unitary and the other on the view of society as binary.

In the essays on Algeria, Lyotard applies this project to the French occupation, trying to determine the potential for socialist revolution arising from this situation. Steuerman, Emilia, The Bounds of Reason: Lyotard writes that the developments differsnd postmodernity he is dealing with have been largely concerned with language: Although the above account requir es that discourse take place within lyotarf dominant paradigm, albeit with new idio ms, this is a necessary structure of language and not inherently detrimental.

Because of the radical incommensurability of phrase regimes in the case of a differend, any “resolution” would ddifferend assert the legitimacy of one phrase regime at the cost of silencing the other, thus deepening the wrong.

Jean-François Lyotard: “Le Différend,” Part One

For example, we cannot judge what ought to be the case a prescriptive from what is the case a denotative. The Kantian Critique of History, trans.

The project of Socialisme ou Barbarie was to provide theoretical resources hhe contribute to socialist revolution, critiquing tue existing socialist strands particularly Stalinism and the French communist party as a hindrance to revolution, and with a particular emphasis on the critique of bureaucracy. Paganism Lyotard develops the notion of paganism in “Lessons in Paganism” reprinted in The Lyotard ReaderJust Gaming and various other short works of the late seventies.

In the second part the focus shifts from Husserl to the work difffrend Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Postmodern sciences, which concern themselves with undecidables, the limits of precise control, conflicts characterized by incomplete information, “fracta,” catastrophes, and pragmatic paradoxes, continue to undermine performativity in the form of determinism. As Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt point out, phrasing oneself in terms of the dom inant discourse can be more liberating than the post-modern alternative, namely Lyotard’s paganism.